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t

6 common.inc t($string, $args = array(), $langcode = NULL)
7 bootstrap.inc t($string, array $args = array(), array $options = array())

Translates a string to the current language or to a given language.

The t() function serves two purposes. First, at run-time it translates user-visible text into the appropriate language. Second, various mechanisms that figure out what text needs to be translated work off t() -- the text inside t() calls is added to the database of strings to be translated. So, to enable a fully-translatable site, it is important that all human-readable text that will be displayed on the site or sent to a user is passed through the t() function, or a related function. See the Localization API pages for more information, including recommendations on how to break up or not break up strings for translation.

You should never use t() to translate variables, such as calling

t($text); 

, unless the text that the variable holds has been passed through t() elsewhere (e.g., $text is one of several translated literal strings in an array). It is especially important never to call

t($user_text); 

, where $user_text is some text that a user entered - doing that can lead to cross-site scripting and other security problems. However, you can use variable substitution in your string, to put variable text such as user names or link URLs into translated text. Variable substitution looks like this:

$text = t("@name's blog", array('@name' => format_username($account)));

Basically, you can put variables like @name into your string, and t() will substitute their sanitized values at translation time (see $args below or the Localization API pages referenced above for details). Translators can then rearrange the string as necessary for the language (e.g., in Spanish, it might be "blog de @name").

During the Drupal installation phase, some resources used by t() wil not be available to code that needs localization. See st() and get_t() for alternatives.

Parameters

$string: A string containing the English string to translate.

$args: An associative array of replacements to make after translation. Occurrences in $string of any key in $args are replaced with the corresponding value, after sanitization. The sanitization function depends on the first character of the key:

  • !variable: Inserted as is. Use this for text that has already been sanitized.
  • @variable: Escaped to HTML using check_plain(). Use this for anything displayed on a page on the site.
  • %variable: Escaped as a placeholder for user-submitted content using drupal_placeholder(), which shows up as <em>emphasized</em> text.

$options: An associative array of additional options, with the following elements:

  • 'langcode' (defaults to the current language): The language code to translate to a language other than what is used to display the page.
  • 'context' (defaults to the empty context): The context the source string belongs to.

Return value

The translated string.

See also

st()

get_t()

Related topics

3119 calls to t()

41 string references to 't'

File

drupal/includes/bootstrap.inc, line 1262
Functions that need to be loaded on every Drupal request.

Code

function t($string, array $args = array(), array $options = array()) {
  global $language;
  static $custom_strings;

  // Merge in default.
  if (empty($options['langcode'])) {
    $options['langcode'] = isset($language->language) ? $language->language : 'en';
  }
  if (empty($options['context'])) {
    $options['context'] = '';
  }

  // First, check for an array of customized strings. If present, use the array
  // *instead of* database lookups. This is a high performance way to provide a
  // handful of string replacements. See settings.php for examples.
  // Cache the $custom_strings variable to improve performance.
  if (!isset($custom_strings[$options['langcode']])) {
    $custom_strings[$options['langcode']] = variable_get('locale_custom_strings_' . $options['langcode'], array());
  }
  // Custom strings work for English too, even if locale module is disabled.
  if (isset($custom_strings[$options['langcode']][$options['context']][$string])) {
    $string = $custom_strings[$options['langcode']][$options['context']][$string];
  }
  // Translate with locale module if enabled.
  elseif ($options['langcode'] != 'en' && function_exists('locale')) {
    $string = locale($string, $options['context'], $options['langcode']);
  }
  if (empty($args)) {
    return $string;
  }
  else {
    // Transform arguments before inserting them.
    foreach ($args as $key => $value) {
      switch ($key[0]) {
        case '@':
          // Escaped only.
          $args[$key] = check_plain($value);
          break;

        case '%':
        default:
          // Escaped and placeholder.
          $args[$key] = drupal_placeholder($value);
          break;

        case '!':
          // Pass-through.
      }
    }
    return strtr($string, $args);
  }
}