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Schema API

  1. drupal
    1. 6 drupal/includes/database.inc
    2. 7 drupal/includes/database/schema.inc

API to handle database schemas.

A Drupal schema definition is an array structure representing one or more tables and their related keys and indexes. A schema is defined by hook_schema(), which usually lives in a modulename.install file.

By implementing hook_schema() and specifying the tables your module declares, you can easily create and drop these tables on all supported database engines. You don't have to deal with the different SQL dialects for table creation and alteration of the supported database engines.

hook_schema() should return an array with a key for each table that the module defines.

The following keys are defined:

  • 'description': A string in non-markup plain text describing this table and its purpose. References to other tables should be enclosed in curly-brackets. For example, the node_revisions table description field might contain "Stores per-revision title and body data for each {node}."
  • 'fields': An associative array ('fieldname' => specification) that describes the table's database columns. The specification is also an array. The following specification parameters are defined:

    • 'description': A string in non-markup plain text describing this field and its purpose. References to other tables should be enclosed in curly-brackets. For example, the node table vid field description might contain "Always holds the largest (most recent) {node_revision}.vid value for this nid."
    • 'type': The generic datatype: 'char', 'varchar', 'text', 'blob', 'int', 'float', 'numeric', or 'serial'. Most types just map to the according database engine specific datatypes. Use 'serial' for auto incrementing fields. This will expand to 'INT auto_increment' on MySQL.
    • 'mysql_type', 'pgsql_type', 'sqlite_type', etc.: If you need to use a record type not included in the officially supported list of types above, you can specify a type for each database backend. In this case, you can leave out the type parameter, but be advised that your schema will fail to load on backends that do not have a type specified. A possible solution can be to use the "text" type as a fallback.
    • 'serialize': A boolean indicating whether the field will be stored as a serialized string.
    • 'size': The data size: 'tiny', 'small', 'medium', 'normal', 'big'. This is a hint about the largest value the field will store and determines which of the database engine specific datatypes will be used (e.g. on MySQL, TINYINT vs. INT vs. BIGINT). 'normal', the default, selects the base type (e.g. on MySQL, INT, VARCHAR, BLOB, etc.). Not all sizes are available for all data types. See DatabaseSchema::getFieldTypeMap() for possible combinations.
    • 'not null': If true, no NULL values will be allowed in this database column. Defaults to false.
    • 'default': The field's default value. The PHP type of the value matters: '', '0', and 0 are all different. If you specify '0' as the default value for a type 'int' field it will not work because '0' is a string containing the character "zero", not an integer.
    • 'length': The maximal length of a type 'char', 'varchar' or 'text' field. Ignored for other field types.
    • 'unsigned': A boolean indicating whether a type 'int', 'float' and 'numeric' only is signed or unsigned. Defaults to FALSE. Ignored for other field types.
    • 'precision', 'scale': For type 'numeric' fields, indicates the precision (total number of significant digits) and scale (decimal digits right of the decimal point). Both values are mandatory. Ignored for other field types.

    All parameters apart from 'type' are optional except that type 'numeric' columns must specify 'precision' and 'scale'.

  • 'primary key': An array of one or more key column specifiers (see below) that form the primary key.
  • 'unique keys': An associative array of unique keys ('keyname' => specification). Each specification is an array of one or more key column specifiers (see below) that form a unique key on the table.
  • 'foreign keys': An associative array of relations ('my_relation' => specification). Each specification is an array containing the name of the referenced table ('table'), and an array of column mappings ('columns'). Column mappings are defined by key pairs ('source_column' => 'referenced_column').
  • 'indexes': An associative array of indexes ('indexname' => specification). Each specification is an array of one or more key column specifiers (see below) that form an index on the table.

A key column specifier is either a string naming a column or an array of two elements, column name and length, specifying a prefix of the named column.

As an example, here is a SUBSET of the schema definition for Drupal's 'node' table. It show four fields (nid, vid, type, and title), the primary key on field 'nid', a unique key named 'vid' on field 'vid', and two indexes, one named 'nid' on field 'nid' and one named 'node_title_type' on the field 'title' and the first four bytes of the field 'type':

$schema['node'] = array(
  'description' => 'The base table for nodes.',
  'fields' => array(
    'nid'       => array('type' => 'serial', 'unsigned' => TRUE, 'not null' => TRUE),
    'vid'       => array('type' => 'int', 'unsigned' => TRUE, 'not null' => TRUE,'default' => 0),
    'type'      => array('type' => 'varchar','length' => 32,'not null' => TRUE, 'default' => ''),
    'language'  => array('type' => 'varchar','length' => 12,'not null' => TRUE,'default' => ''),
    'title'     => array('type' => 'varchar','length' => 255,'not null' => TRUE, 'default' => ''),
    'uid'       => array('type' => 'int', 'not null' => TRUE, 'default' => 0),
    'status'    => array('type' => 'int', 'not null' => TRUE, 'default' => 1),
    'created'   => array('type' => 'int', 'not null' => TRUE, 'default' => 0),
    'changed'   => array('type' => 'int', 'not null' => TRUE, 'default' => 0),
    'comment'   => array('type' => 'int', 'not null' => TRUE, 'default' => 0),
    'promote'   => array('type' => 'int', 'not null' => TRUE, 'default' => 0),
    'moderate'  => array('type' => 'int', 'not null' => TRUE,'default' => 0),
    'sticky'    => array('type' => 'int', 'not null' => TRUE, 'default' => 0),
    'tnid'      => array('type' => 'int', 'unsigned' => TRUE, 'not null' => TRUE, 'default' => 0),
    'translate' => array('type' => 'int', 'not null' => TRUE, 'default' => 0),
  ),
  'indexes' => array(
    'node_changed'        => array('changed'),
    'node_created'        => array('created'),
    'node_moderate'       => array('moderate'),
    'node_frontpage'      => array('promote', 'status', 'sticky', 'created'),
    'node_status_type'    => array('status', 'type', 'nid'),
    'node_title_type'     => array('title', array('type', 4)),
    'node_type'           => array(array('type', 4)),
    'uid'                 => array('uid'),
    'tnid'                => array('tnid'),
    'translate'           => array('translate'),
  ),
  'unique keys' => array(
    'vid' => array('vid'),
  ),
  'foreign keys' => array(
    'node_revision' => array(
      'table' => 'node_revision',
      'columns' => array('vid' => 'vid'),
     ),
    'node_author' => array(
      'table' => 'users',
      'columns' => array('uid' => 'uid'),
     ),
   ),
  'primary key' => array('nid'),
);

See also

drupal_install_schema()

Classes

NameDescription
DatabaseSchema
DatabaseSchemaObjectDoesNotExistExceptionException thrown if an object being modified doesn't exist yet.
DatabaseSchemaObjectExistsExceptionException thrown if an object being created already exists.
DatabaseSchema_mysql
DatabaseSchema_pgsql
DatabaseSchema_sqlite

Functions & methods

NameDescription
db_add_fieldAdds a new field to a table.
db_add_indexAdds an index.
db_add_primary_keyAdds a primary key to a database table.
db_add_unique_keyAdds a unique key.
db_change_fieldChanges a field definition.
db_create_tableCreates a new table from a Drupal table definition.
db_drop_fieldDrops a field.
db_drop_indexDrops an index.
db_drop_primary_keyDrops the primary key of a database table.
db_drop_tableDrops a table.
db_drop_unique_keyDrops a unique key.
db_field_existsChecks if a column exists in the given table.
db_field_namesReturns an array of field names from an array of key/index column specifiers.
db_field_set_defaultSets the default value for a field.
db_field_set_no_defaultSets a field to have no default value.
db_find_tablesFinds all tables that are like the specified base table name.
db_index_existsChecks if an index exists in the given table.
db_rename_tableRenames a table.
db_table_existsChecks if a table exists.
drupal_get_schemaGet the schema definition of a table, or the whole database schema.
drupal_get_schema_unprocessedReturns the unprocessed and unaltered version of a module's schema.
drupal_install_schemaCreates all tables in a module's hook_schema() implementation.
drupal_schema_fields_sqlRetrieve a list of fields from a table schema. The list is suitable for use in a SQL query.
drupal_uninstall_schemaRemove all tables that a module defines in its hook_schema().
drupal_write_recordSaves (inserts or updates) a record to the database based upon the schema.
hook_schemaDefine the current version of the database schema.
_db_create_keys_sql
_drupal_schema_initializeFill in required default values for table definitions returned by hook_schema().

File

drupal/includes/database/schema.inc, line 10
Generic Database schema code.